Summary of Abstract Submission

Abstract Submission No. IO50-01-0002PresentationKeynote


Karl BANSE*1

1 School of Oceanography, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA, U.S.A.


For many centuries the seasonally reversing monsoons in the northern Indian Ocean and SE Asian waters had been utilized by seafaring traders. By the 1930-1950s quarterly or monthly maps of surface climatology (e.g., temperature, winds, clouds, currents), had been published by hydrographic offices, based on at least daily observations required since the late 1850s from merchant mariners. Mostly before 1914, national expeditions along single tracks had provided subsurface data. Because these ships worked in the descriptive discovery mode, most studies were unfocussed. Seasonal sampling or repeat sections were rare; multi-year time series with monthly plankton sampling in the 1940s and 1950s came only from India. Offshore, direct anthropogenic effects were probably absent before long-distance fishery entered; fishing still is the principal agent for biological change.
Among the lessons, sharp from the benefits of hindsight, are the following: 1. Avoid further unfocussed surveys and deep sediment traps for IIOE-2. 2. Instead, attempt specific questions (hypotheses) that are amenable to quantitative answers. 3. Replicate the sampling for finding significance of differences between stations (seasonal or along sections). 4. Plan also multi-ship process studies. 5. Equip ships for on-board experiments with animals. 6. Tackle the meso-pelagial, including clever experimentation at sea. 7. Assign one vessel for deploying big mid-water trawls (20-40 m wide opening). 8. Arrange for ship(s) and personnel for long-term time-series on a scale of > 10 years, collecting also animals and curating at least identified voucher specimens for proving faunistic changes